GarCo Manufacturing Co., Inc.

A Material Solutions Company

Textile Terminology

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Abrasion
Wearing away by friction.

Basket Weave
The basket weave is a variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp yarns cross alternatively with two or more filling yarns, resembling a plaited basket.  This weave is more pliable and stronger than a plain weave, but is looser and not as stable.  The basket weave is typically used in the composites industry.

Beam
A spool on which a number of parallel ends of single or plied yarns are wound, for use in weaving or similar processing operations.

Beaming
Operation in which many ends of yarn from a creel are combined on a section beam.

Binder
A material applied in liquid form to fibers, yarn or fabric to retain structural integrity during further processing.

Bobbin
The spool or shipping package on to which textile yarns are wound.

Braid/Braider
A narrow tubular or flat fabric produced by intertwining a single set of yarns according to a definite pattern.

Butt Seaming Thread
A thread intended for seaming two material edges butted against each other.

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Cabled Yarn
Yarn that is plied more than once; yarn made by plying two or more previously plied yarns.

Carding
The process of untangling and partially straightening fibers by passing them between two closely spaced surfaces which are moving at different speeds, and at least one of which is covered with sharp points, thus converting a tangled mass of fibers to a filmy web.

Chemical Size
A surface finish applied to the fiber that contains some chemical constituents other than water.

Collet
A spool on which the gathered strands from the bushing are wound for further processing.

Continuous Filament
A thread intended for stitching material either by hand or by machine. read intended for stitching material either by hand or by machine.

Coronizing
Continuous heat cleaning and weave setting.

Cotton
A plant fiber derived from a cotton plant.  Cotton fabric is soft, absorbs water and wrinkles easily.  Cotton fabric is light and cool.

Creel
That part of a twisting, winding or warping machine that holds packages of strands for further fabrication.

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Denier
A numbering system for expressing linear density, equal to the mass in  grams of 9000 meters of a fiber, filament or thread.

Density, Fiberr
Mass per unit volume of the solid matter of which a fiber is composed, measured under specified conditions.

Direct-Sized Yarn
Specially formulated sizings on textile yarns that allow them to be resin compatible.

Dispersion
The process of suspending individual fibers (filaments) in an aqueous medium.

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End
A single fiber, strand, roving or yarn being incorporated into a product.

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Filament
Thin, longitudinal yarns or threads of glass, polyester, nylon or other materials.

Filament Yarn
A yarn composed of continuous filaments assembled with or without twist.

Fill
The system of yarns running crosswise in a woven fabric.  Also known as weft.

Finish
Coupling agent applied to fabric to improve compatibility with resins or to improve high temperature lubricity.

Fly
Fibers which fly out into the atmosphere during carding, drawing, spinning or other textile processes.

Fuzz
Untangled or broken fiber ends that protrude from the surface of a yarn or fabric.

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Heat Cleaning
Batch and continuous processes in which organic yarn binder is removed from glass fabrics.

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Knitted Fabric
A structure produced by interlooping one or more ends of yarn or comparable material.

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Leno Weave
The leno weave is a locking type weave in which two or more warp threads cross over each other and interlace with one or more filling threads. It is used primarily prevent shifting of fibers in open weave fabrics.

Loom
A mechanical device that interlaces fibers at right angles with varying degrees of weave construction (weight, thickness and design). More modern looms are air jet but rapier and more traditional shuttle equipment is still in use.

Loom Beam
A large, flanged cylinder onto which all warp yarns are wound and from which yarns enter the looms.

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Non-Woven Fabric
A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal and/or solvent means.

Nylon
A synthetic fiber derived from coal.  Nylon is shiny, tough, stretchable and melts under a hot iron.  The fibers are nonabsorbent, quick drying and doesn’t wrinkle.

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Overspray
A specially formulated binder applied to texturized yarn that helps retain the bulk of the yarn after texturizing.

Plain Weave
A plain weave is the most simple and most commonly used weave patterns.  In this type of weave, the warp and filling threads cross alternately.  Plain woven fabrics are generally the least pliable and the most stable.

Plied Yarn
A yarn formed by twisting together two or more single yarns in one operation.

Ply
The number of single yarns twisted together to form a plied yarn; also the number of plied yarns twisted together to form a cord.  The individual yarn in a plied cord or in a cord.  One of several layers of fabric.

Polyester
A synthetic fiber derived from petroleum.  The fiber does not wrinkle, is silk-like, strong and absorbent.

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Rayon
Rayon is a synthetic fiber made of wood.  Rayon doesn’t wrinkle, is soft and absorbent.

Roving
A multiplicity of filaments or yarns gathered together into an approximately parallel arrangement without twist.

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Satin Weave
In a satin weave, the face of the fabric consists almost completely of warp or filling floats produced in the repeat of the weave, which causes one side of the fabric to look different than the other side.  There is one filling thread which floats over three or more warp threads, then under one.  This is the most drapeable of weave patterns and conforms very easily around most contoured surfaces.  Most satin weaves are either four, five, eight or twelve harness satins and are typically utilized in the composites industry.

Scrim
A light woven or non-woven fabric with relatively large openings between the yarns, used as reinforcement for paper and other products.

Section Beam
A flanged cylinder onto which yarn is drawn and accumulated from yarn bobbins or packages.

Selvage
The narrow edge of woven fabric that runs parallel to the warp. It is woven more tightly to prevent the fabric from unraveling.

Serving
Wrapping of yarn around a product in one or more layers to form a protective covering.

Sewing Thread
A flexible, small diameter yarn or strand intended for stitching material either by hand or by machine.

Silk
Silk is an animal fiber from the cocoons of silkworms.  It is smooth and shiny.  Fabrics made of silk are lightweight.

Single Yarn
The simplest strand of textile material suitable for operations such as weaving, knitting, etc.

Size
A generic term for compounds which when applied to a yarn or fabric, from a more or less continuous solid film around the yarn and individual fibers.  Also known as a binder.

Slashing
The method of applying size to a width of warp yarns on a continuous basis.

Sliver
Overlapping and parallel staple fibers that have been gathered into a loose, continuous bundle.

Splice
The joining of two ends of yarn by intertwining, knotting, overlapping or adhering them together.

Spun Thread
Commonly used to describe a thread that consists of staple fibers held together usually by twist.

Strand
A single fiber, filament or monofilament.

Strand Count
A flan

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Tape
A narrow fabric with a mass per unit area of less than 0.1-lb per square foot for each 1-inch of width.

Tension Device
A mechanical or magnetic device that controls tension.

Tex
A unit for expressing linear density, equal to the mass in grams of 1km yarn, filament, fiber or other textile strand.

Textured Thread
A continuous-filament thread that has been processed to introduce durable crimps, coils, loops or other distortion along the length of the filaments.

Turn
One 360° revolution of the components around the axis of the strand.

Twill Weave
A twill weave is a basic weave characterized by a diagonal rib, or twill line.  Each end floats over at least two or more consecutive picks enabling a greater number of yarns per unit area than a plain weave, while not losing a great deal of fabric stability.  This type of fabric looks different on one side than the other.

Twist
The condition of a thread when the component elements have a helical disposition such as results, for instance, from relative rotation of the yarn ends.  For all practical purposes, twist is measured in turns per unit length.

Twist Direction
Twist is described as S or Z according to which of these letters has its centre inclined the same direction as the surface elements of a given twisted thread, when the thread is viewed vertically.

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Untreated
A descriptive term used to describe yarns having no chemicals or coatings applied other than the minimal lubricant or binder used to control intra-fiber abrasion.

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Warp
The yarn running lengthwise in a woven fabric.  A group of yarns in long lengths and approximately parallel, put on beams or warp reels for further textile processing.

Warp Size
Chemicals applied to the warp yarn to improve strand integrity, strength and smoothness in order to withstand rigors of weaving.

Weft
The system of yarns running crosswise in a fabric.  Also known as fill.

Wet-Laid
A process for forming a non-woven web from a water slurry similar to papermaking.  Also known as “wet-process” or “wet-formed.”

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Yarn
A generic term for a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments or material in a form suitable for knitting, weaving or intertwining to form a textile fabric.

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